July 18, 2017

The battle of Waterloo

The battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815 marked the end of the attempt escaped from the island of Elba Napoleon Bonaparte to regain the throne of France (the Hundred days of Napoleon). She put an end to his entire military and political career. Broken at Waterloo the Anglo-Prussian army, Napoleon was forced to abdicate the secondary and sent to distant exile on St. Helena, where after six years died.

The adventure of the Hundred days were successful for Napoleon. Having collected an army, and speaking from Paris to the North, into Belgium, he inflicted there on 16 June 1815 sensitive the defeat of the British at Quatre Bras and the Prussians at ligny. However, the new Prussian commander of the Gneisenau managed to gather the remnants of the defeated army at ligny, to organize a new attack on the French. Absolutely did not expect that Napoleon weakened his army, separated from it 33-thousand corps of Marshal grouchy. This corps was ordered to pursue the Prussians, which, in the opinion of Napoleon, had, after Linyi in chaotic retreat to the Meuse. However, the Prussian army gathered at the city of Wavre and engaged the relationship with the English commander Wellington, which is located 20 kilometers South of Brussels near the village of Waterloo. The Prussians invited the Wellington immediately strike up a new battle with the enemy.

Knew nothing about Napoleon before the battle of Waterloo joined at Quatre Bras your army with the army of Marshal Ney marched on the Brussels road against the British. He came up with the idea that he’ll have to fight with the Prussians, which he considered completely out of sync. Napoleon expected an easy victory. To induce fear into the enemy and inspire courage to his own troops, he arranged for the eyes of the British military parade. That’s the last time lined up on the parade before their leader, the veterans who participated in the battle of the Pyramids, Austerlitz, Borodino, and so long kept at Bay the whole world. From the decline of its former glory, they have saved only his soldier’s pride, his thirst for vengeance and an indomitable affection for its heroic leader. During this inspection on the eve of the battle of Waterloo Imperial, power once again had the eyes of an old soldier in all its brilliance and made a deep impression on their hearts. A great commander once again appeared before them in his dark greatness.

At noon on 18 June 1815, Napoleon began the battle, which was called the battle of Waterloo or the Belle Alliance. Victory for a long time not leaning it to either side; the ranks of the British army for a long time with heroic courage reflected and a huge mass of infantry, which the French General’erlon rushed to the troops of Wellington, and such masses of cavalry of Ney, which has never been assembled at one point. However, in the afternoon the ranks of the British began to waver, and the attack of the French at Mont Saint-Jean is the Central position of Wellington – became more and more formidable. However, fighting at Waterloo the British came on time. The Prussians, whom Napoleon considered fleeing, attacked the rear of the right wing of the French. At the time, like Marshal grouchy at Wavre entered into battle with the forces of Tillmann, chief of the Prussian army appeared on the battlefield, where the decisive struggle. The fiercest battle of Waterloo went to Mont-Saint-Jean – the row of hills that cut great road leading to Brussels. There is, as they say, was uttered by a French General Cambronne the following words, preserved in the memory of his nation as the last reminder of a lost generation of heroes: “the Guard may die but never surrenders” on the Contrary, no excuses, it was impossible to wash away the shame with General Burmon, traitors sided with the Bourbons and left the French army on the eve of battle at ligny. Connecting the allied armies that saved them from the threatening of Waterloo defeat, was mainly a matter of Gneisenau.

“The arrival of Blucher or death!” exclaimed Wellington, when the battle began in the afternoon to take an unfavorable turn for him. Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo by the timely appearance on the field of battle by the Prussians under the command of Blücher and Bülow. Seventy Blucher who lay for two days before at Ligny without movement under his horse among the enemy cavalry was still fresh and undaunted. On the right wing, the French suffered a complete defeat. Like a desperate player, Napoleon finally decided to put everything on one card. Imperial guard Napoleon Bank to the last extremity, was about seven o’clock in the evening sent under the command of Ney in the attack on the center of the British position at Waterloo, but after a fierce hand-to-hand fight were forced to retreat. The side of the Bulow Planshow broke several other battalions of the Imperial guard after a bloody struggle.

“It’s over, run for it!” exclaimed Napoleon. Marshal Soult, who replaced Berthier, the chief of the General staff, took the pale and bewildered Emperor from the field of battle. Pursued by the enemy, Napoleon jumped up without a hat and without a sword on his horse and hurriedly went through Charleroi, Philippeville, Laon to Paris. Soon the entire French army turned into a rout. After the battle of Waterloo she left in the hands of the enemy, all their artillery; only the fourth part of it managed to escape. Even the coach of Napoleon, was filled with gold and precious stones, fell to the Prussians.

Gneisenau himself led the pursuit of the broken enemy. Army of English and Prussians were obliged to a brilliant victory at Waterloo the total consensus course of action of his commanders as much confidence in his superiors and to his own forces. Nevertheless, the outcome of the battle was decided by the timely arrival of the Prussians. However, the national jealousy of the Britons have long attributed the victory solely or principally with the Duke of Wellington and the British army! After the battle, two warlords embraced in the farm of Belle-Alliance. Blucher wished the battle were named for this farm. However, Wellington chose the name Waterloo, where he was the day before the battle spent the night, but where there was no battle. Only after many years of historical criticism to appreciate the merits of each of the two commanders.

In written on the island of St. Helena memoirs Napoleon calls the main culprit of the loss of the battle of Waterloo of Marshal grouchy, who has not performed given him orders to hurry on the battlefield by the shortest route, but instead came near Wavre in the struggle with the Prussian corps Tillmann and therefore could not fulfill his task. Later military writers have recognized these unjust accusations; they claim that the Pear could not arrive to the site of the battle of Waterloo soon enough to affect the outcome. Those 30,000 people, which he took after the battle of NAMUR, and from there through Dinant Mezieres and Rethel in Soissons, was strong-to which could join the soldiers fleeing. However, we can positively assert that the conduct of Marshal grouchy was nothing ambiguous.

The total number of losses of the French army at Waterloo exceeded 50,000 people, and the loss of the allies reached 43,000; but the pursuit of the enemy, completed his defeat. The army, which had pinned their hopes restored the French Empire, was after the battle of Waterloo, in essence, completely destroyed, and with it disappeared and the credibility of its leader.

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