May 30, 2017

The Life Of Alcibiades

Alcibiades was one of the finest of the Athenian statesmen and generals; son of Kliniy and Tanamacha, rod. In Athens 451 B. C. and Lost in the battle of Coronea (447) father, he was raised then in the house of his relative, the famous Pericles. Already at a young age we see him next with remarkable powers, with the noble character traits — selfishness, frivolity, impudence, arrogance and the desire to be first everywhere. Its beauty, high birth and influence of Pericles, gained him many friends and admirers; great influence was used on him, also, Socrates, but the good side of his character could no longer prevail over evil. After the death of Pericles at the beginning, in all probability, the enemy of Cleon Alcibiades, after the death of this last (in 422) becomes the head ultrademocratic parties, war parties, envying, mainly, to the influence of the aristocrat nicias, which in 421, persuaded the two warring parties, the Athenians and the Spartans to make peace for 50 years. Alcibiades forced the Athenians to conclude an Alliance with the Argives, the Elyos and Mantinea and even managed to isolate the Spartans in the Peloponnese; but the unexpected victory of the Spartans in 418, at the battle of Mantinea, which was attended by Alcibiades, put an end to this Union; then, in 415 g. the Athenians, at the instigation of Alcibiades also undertook an expedition to Sicily, with the primary aim to help the city Egesta against Selinus and Syracuse: generals was appointed nicias, Alcibiades, and Lam.

But during the preparations for the campaign happened on the night of May 11th was tilted all the Herms in Athens; the enemies of Alcibiades tried to throw on him the suspicion of the crime; but since he was in this case absolutely innocent, he was accused of ridiculing the Eleusinian mysteries. In vain Alcibiades demanded an immediate investigation of the case prior to the departure of the fleet; the expedition went, but after a few weeks. Utterly exasperated enemies of Alcibiades, the people demanded that he returned and appeared before the court. In Sicily, meanwhile, Alcibiades was able to carry out his plan, and the Athenians gained some successes; but for the further implementation of the plan had the personal presence of Alcibiades, which, meanwhile, in August, followed the orders of the people, but fled from the road (the Furies) and went to the Peloponnese. After receiving the news that the Athenian people condemned him and sentenced him to death, he at the end of the 415, it was taken over by the Spartans and had here in a very short time to become the people’s favorite, mainly due to the fact that strictly follow all traditional practices. He convinced the Spartans to come to the aid of and after the occupation Decelea to gain a foothold in Attica (413). At his advice, the Spartans decided after the unfortunate outcome of the Athenian expedition to Sicily to connect with the Persian Satrap Tissaphernes and help first to Chios, to tear him away from Athens.

He went there in the spring of 412 and led Ionian to revolt against Athens. Nevertheless, the happiness soon he changed. Full of mistrust and jealousy of the stranger, the Spartan aristocrats, led by their king Agis II, with his wife of which Alcibiades was involved, decided to kill the Alcibiades. Being warned in time, Alcibiades in October 412, was saved to Tissaphernes, and then he quickly is accustomed again to the Persian customs and the Persian way of life and becomes inseparable attorney Persian Satrap. He convinces him that full weakening of Athens contrary to the interests of Persia, which is much more reasonable to provide the Greek States are mutually weaken each other. Placing it gradually in favor of Athens, he enters into relations with the oligarchic leaders of the Athenian fleet stationed at Samos, and promises them to attract to their side Tissaphernes if they are overthrown in Athens democracy and impose oligarchic form of government. The proposal was met with agreement, but when Alcibiades in the end still failed to persuade Tissaphernes to the conclusion of the Alliance with the Athenians, the oligarchs-conspirators stopped with it relations; democracy in Athens was, however, in April 411 the city overthrown, and in its place introduced oligarchic rule of the so-called “400”. During the oligarchic coup by the army standing on Samos; it elected a new democratic generals and led them to put the Alcibiades. Already in the month of June fell the Athenian oligarchy, and who took her place a reasonable democracy gave Alcibiades the right to return to their homeland. However, he is still three years spent away from Athens, which had for that time enormous services.

In Oct. 411 his timely arrival helped the Athenians to win a victory at Abydos; then taking over the leadership of the Athenian army, Alcibiades defeated the Spartans and the Persians at Cyzicus (400), won 409 city of Khalkedon, Byzantium, etc., returned thus to the Athenians the command of the sea in June 408 triumphantly returned home. He was greeted with universal enthusiasm, which reached its climax when Alcibiades gave the Athenians to take under the protection of troops, a solemn procession in Eleusis, which they had long been deprived.

But it’s a brilliant time was short; clothed with the nation as a military leader, unlimited power, but at the same time, and equally hated by the oligarchs, and radical, Alcibiades in autumn with a fleet of 100 ships sent again to Asia. This time he had to deal with the new Spartan commander Lisandro, and he could not easily cope with: it was a man of wonderful mind and abilities, which you are generously provided with all the means to fight Cyrus, who appeared in the summer 408 to the theatre of war, as the Persian Viceroy in Lydia, great Phrygia and Cappadocia.

During the absence of Alcibiades, who himself went to Trasibulo, the besieging Phocaea, who took for him the command of Antiochus adopted contrary to the direct prohibition of Alcibiades battle (Note near Ephesus), which cost him his life, and the Athenians of several ships. This failure benefited the enemies of Alcibiades. It was again cocked all sorts of serious charges, and in the summer of 408, he had taken the command over the army, after which he retired to his fortified holdings on the shores of the Propontis. Vainly offered it to the Athenian generals before the fateful battle of Egos-Potamos (405) your advice and assistance. After the fall of Athens in 404 in the spring, he went to Bithynia, then to Barnabas and intended to go to Susa, to open Artaxerxes II plans of his brother Cyrus, and to secure thus his patronage. However, this time Lysander, maybe at the insistence of the so-called. The thirty tyrants of Athens, and being, in all likelihood, authorized by this Cyrus, demanded Parnavaza, so he killed of Alcibiades. By order, Parnavaza his visitor was killed by arrows during his way to Susa, in the Phrygian town of Meliss. Therefore, Alcibiades had finished his life in 404 BC Plutarch and Cornelius Nepos has left us his biography.

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