July 28, 2017

Spartacus Rebellion: Part 1

At a time when Pompey was struggling with the rebellion of Sertorius in Spain, another General of the same party, Marcus Licinius Crassus, rendered a great service to the Roman state, suppressed in Italy the terrible slave revolt of Spartacus, which at one time threatened to become very dangerous. The troops of the Roman government had at the same time to wage war against the three enemies of the state: Mithridates, Sertorius and powerful Cilician pirates. In addition, the revolt of Spartacus gave rise to stagnation in agriculture, and even, in the case of happy end, could completely undermine it, because inevitable after the victory of the execution of the slaves of course had to reduce the number of workers.

The revolt of Spartacus was a terrible revenge slaves for the brutal violence of the Roman aristocracy, purchased at public expense to vast estates, and cultivated them with the help of many thousand slaves. In Sicily and Italy free rural bar after the Second and Third Punic wars were largely destroyed and replaced by a huge number of slaves, just as in our time, the part of factory workers replaced by machines. Shortly before the revolt of Spartacus, the danger, which threatened the state from slaves, increased even more. The location of the people for gladiatorial games and the desire of the noble Romans to outdo each other in the device for the people these terrible pleasure remarkably increased the number of slaves, distinguished by strength and savagery of manners. In Thrace, Gaul and other barbarous countries, slaves were bought in droves, were accustomed to gladiatorial battle and was sold for the battle for life and death are special officials in charge of the public amusements. Selling slaves was even a special kind of industry. Merchants’ slaves counted while in the civil concern. Choosing a strong and courageous slaves and teach them to battle, they have sold their ambitious the people’s tribunes and other violators of the public peace, and who used them instead of their guardians, in order to be able, in case of need, to resort to open force.

The main facilities for the training of gladiators were in Ravenna and Capua, because in both these cities, life was much cheaper than Rome and other places. About the benefits, this industry can be judged from the fact that even many free men did in Gladiator, and some of the senators and riders are not considered derogatory to their dignity to have a gladiatorial school and personally supervise the exercise of slaves. However, gladiators in fact hardly rougher so popular now in the world of Boxing.

Terrible slave war of Spartacus broke out in 73 BC started in a school for the soldiers in Capua. Seventy-three slave escaped from the prison, which was signed by its cruel owner, Lentulus by Batiatus for Gladiator training in the art. Fugitives captured in the nearby taverns and butchers knives and a skewer, freed their brethren, and departed from the city. Thence, they had intended or to reach one of the free cities, or, in the case of extremes, with the arms expensive to sell his life instead of sacrificing it for the fun of ill people. Near the town, the rebels came across the transport of weapons assigned to their rulers. Mastering the transport, they occupied a strong position at the foot of Vesuvius, and repulsed the troops sent to chase them, and the former seized their weapons.

After the rebellious slaves was elected leader of the Thracian Spartacus, the main culprit for their release. Their selection was extremely successful: Spartak have the talent of the commander, knew the terrain and knew how to skillfully use it. Under the command of Spartacus, the slaves destroyed several cages in which were imprisoned the slaves, and attracted to his side many even free citizens, who were thirsting for plunder, or driven by poverty to despair. In a short time, the number of rebels increased to such an extent that they were able to capture and loot many of the cities Campaign. The revolt of Spartacus joined by many slaves, which in the cities to the Lucania grazed the herds of the Roman aristocracy. The shepherds and the poor mountaineers, engaged in the same trade, could be very useful to escaped slaves; it was the people, tempered in the storm and extremely capable for the war in the mountains. The number of the rebel slaves rallied around Spartacus finally rose to seventy thousand people, which consisted mainly of Thracians and Gauls. The latter were especially numerous. Making, under the leadership of their leaders, Oenomaus and Crixus, a separate detachment, they are made in the country the same terrible devastation, later during the peasants ‘ war and the French revolution, a fierce crowd of people devastated southern Germany and France.

Spartacus defeated several Roman sent against him troops and seized their weapons, had armed his crowd as a regular army. However, he tried in vain to introduce among his hordes of discipline and proper organization; the insurgent slaves continued to ravage the country and the war, like all such disturbances, he took a terrible character. He had often to resort to atrocities to satisfy the thirst for revenge of their subordinates. The slaves arrived with the Romans as well as the lately rebellious Negroes San Domingo with the Europeans, or as did the Romans with them. They held solemn games in honor of their fallen brethren, and hundreds of prisoners the Romans had to fight each other as gladiators.

Despite the lack of discipline in the army of slaves, Spartacus fought a war with great art, and in the course of two years, kept a whole strip of land now occupied by the provinces of Basilicata and Calabria. Finally convinced that the rebels in droves, you cannot expect anything good in the future, Spartacus tried to persuade the army to take advantage of their victories to escape from Italy and the United forces to get to the Alps, where every taken with treasure could return home. Gallic slaves rebelled against the intention of Spartacus, and the army was divided into two parts. A large part of the Gauls under the leadership of Crixus went along the Eastern shore of Italy, and Spartacus and the others moved along the base of the Apennines to the Top of Italy.

The first was soon met by a Roman army and destroyed. The winner of them, one of the two consuls of 72 BC, immediately after the battle hastened to join his friend, who led other troops went against Spartacus. However, the latter stepped in his way and on the same day defeated both consuls. Few time Spartacus defeated in Upper Italy even two armies, under the command of proconsul and praetor. Now nothing could prevent successful completion of the trip to the Alps, but Spartacus, blinded by happiness, left her, almost fulfilled the plan and decided to March on Rome. The Roman army, intending to stop his movement, was broken to pieces; but this victory was the last victory of the revolt of Spartacus.1

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