May 12, 2017

Hadrian, the Roman Emperor (Part II)

The Senate and the Imperial consistory under Hadrian

Hadrian took the sample itself in August. He refused to Asian conquests of Trajan and wanted the government was limited to those outside, which was at Augusta, where he imitated and domestic policy, and in the patronage of the arts and literature. Adrian wanted to abandon Dacia is abandoned Asian conquests of Trajan, but to do this it was impossible because there were settled many Romans and Italians: it was impossible to give them as a sacrifice to the barbarians. But in Britain and on the Euphrates Adrian refused to land, ownership of which has led to the continuous wars; he gave gifts to the kings and elders of the land adjacent to the northern border of the empire, gave them a courtesy, to keep them from attacks. He considered himself entitled to show the peacefulness because he cared about the army, and it was always ready to repel the enemy. Adrian kept in the legions discipline does not allow war to indulge in pampering, care about strengthening the country’s borders; and the ruthless suppression of the Jewish revolt shows the severity with which he pacified revolts. Like Augustus, Adrian took care to strengthen the monarchy. In appearance it gave the Senate a great impact on the business and constantly showed him respect, but in fact did not allow any limitation of its sovereignty; the Senate was his only authority to proclaim the will of the emperor. Adrian chose several men who were consuls, and other senators and made of them “advice” or “sovereign consistories” (Consilium or Consistorium Principis) and gave this advice to the all important administrative and judicial proceedings; It was a convenient way to focus more than ever all the administration of the state in the hands of the emperor, and in fact all the important matters have been solved by Adrian, with the assistance of the Council; the Senate has lost any influence on the course of them.

However, according to the form of all the members of the Board Adrian remained under the control of the Senate, from which they were elected members. However, they held such a position that when the business passed to Senate consideration, he took the decision, already given to these matters with them. Meetings of the Council took place under the leadership of Hadrian or, in his absence, under the chair of the praetorian prefects; the prefects, who had originally only military duties, gradually became civil rulers; he was given the rank of senators. Adrian appoint members of its Board and gifted people who knew the affairs of state; those of the later emperors, who were wise, followed this example. When Adriana among the members of the board owned the famous lawyers Julia Celsus, Salvius Julian, Priscus eration. Establishment Board was the beginning, from which developed what is now called the Ministry; chairpersons of the ministry were the praetorian prefects; like the power of the emperors, with the establishment of the Board of increased power and these dignitaries. By establishing the Council, from which gradually formed the Ministry, Adrian put the first base and the entire general bureaucratic hierarchy, which is gradually evolving, became extremely highly complex got its final device under Constantine.

Perpetual Edict of Hadrian

Adrian heavily involved in legal proceedings; his reign begins in the judicial system, in administration, a new era. The highest judges in Italy, he appointed four of consular rank; they went judicial duties praetors, legal activity which ceased. Adrian and Rome and in the provinces he judged the case. He sat down, or in the open, or in a public building, where he was admit people. Many of the provisions of Hadrian show its legal talent and his humanity; It is, for example, laws on political crimes and the rights of masters over slaves. With the reign of Emperor Hadrian’s personal decisions on legal issues, the so-called imperial Constitution, formally receive the force of law. They clarify the legal laws are the main source of law, and edicts curule dignitaries (jus honorarium), the former main source of law in the past, have been collected and put in order the assistant Adrian, Julian Salvi. This set of edicts called “Eternal Edict”, edictum perpetuum, was declared a state code, to which no judicial dignitaries could not make any additions.

After all legislative power was concentrated in the hands of the emperor to replenish the old laws made by the imperial rescripts, which was set to “authentic interpretations”; thus, all the tribunals were completely subordinate to the legislative power of the emperor, and if the chairmen of the main tribunals still continued to issue edicts, their edicts became unimportant, and gradually lost their legal force. It is actively concerned about the welfare of Adrian and the provinces. He carefully watched the governor, tried to enter all parts of the same tax state, the same proceedings, generally equalize the position of all parts of the empire. Visiting Province, Adrian usually gave them generous mercy: built aqueducts, harbor, baths, square, or facilitated the provision of distressed counties, cities, distribution of bread, money, tax exemption, and gave new rights to the population.

Evaluation of the reign of Hadrian, and personality

Reviewing our knowledge of Adrian, we have to admit that he, for all his faults was one of the most remarkable men of the incident in Rome. The greatest appreciation deserves Adrian as a ruler: he improved the proceedings, avoided wars, took care of the provinces, against the army of border security, the distribution of education; his patronage of the arts has created a new period of prosperity. All this shows him the great talents of the government, the mind, the ability to understand his time. The private life of Hadrian, his personal character were also good sides. He showed very diverse activities, a strong will and great giftedness. Adrian was a brave hunter, tirelessly went on foot, trained myself make all sorts of hardships, kept in the army strict discipline; reading it, we think it was more similar to the heroes of the republic than their pampered, sensual, wicked contemporaries. But we seem to be transported in the time of Caligula and Nero, reading that Adrian surrounded himself with mystics, sophists, rhetoricians, fascinated by their idle talk, their futile imaginations, believed astrological charlatanism, Eastern mystical teachings fascinated the most ridiculous superstitions, live like fighting cocks in their villas, surrounded by servants of his unnatural vices. And yet he was a libertine, looking for his own glory in the construction of huge structures, meanwhile, most of the Roman emperors thought fame as empty grandeur holidays, folk entertainment, gladiatorial combat. I must admit that all Adrian – was nevertheless much higher than those of the emperors. There are many fair words Aurelius Victor about it:

“The character of Adriana was unstable, diverse. It is as if he could at will be the virtuous man is vicious. Adrian was able to pretty well harnessed fervor of his temperament and deftly cover up their gloomy suspicion, his lust, vanity abstinence mask, courtesy, kindness, was able to conceal his ardent ambition. According excessive sensibility, Adrian offended people and serious and humorous words, but knew how to respond to the barbs on poetry verses, so it seemed: he was always ready to answer all.

Adrian is very badly behaved with respect to his wife, Sabina, he treated her like a slave-girl, and their grievances brought it to the point that she took her own life. Water illness, which he endured patiently for a long time, finally increased his irritability to the extent that it is in the hardness of their suffering ordered the execution of many senators. Adrian lived to be 62 years old and died a sad, painful death. ”

However, this feature exposes only one side of Hadrian shows it too bad. He was a large, diverse talent, receptive to all great ideas, eloquent, witty, and grumpy but succumb impressions of the moment. The character of Adrian lacked unity; a lot of it was good and many bad.

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