The next stage of development of the material culture of the ancient people called by archaeologists “Chellean” (by Kjell village in France, at the confluence of the Marne River Seine, where stone tools were first discovered, characteristic for this stage). Most fully studied Chellean location in France, in the valley of the Somme, in Amiens. They draw already well-established technique of using a flint, which is based on the reception of bilateral skived pebbles, thus obtaining a certain, strictly expedient form of massive guns, one end of which was in the form of the tip. These were Chellean hand-axes. Left untreated smooth pebbles on the part of the end opposite the tip, it serves as a natural arm, convenient for holding guns in his hands. The edges were decorated Chellean chopping strong, applied alternately to one or the other chipped and therefore, when viewed from the side, have a characteristic zigzag shape.
Chellean ax – the only clearly expressed in the form of large guns of the time, – undoubtedly was universal in their purpose. Chellean person could carry them all the work, which is necessary to spearhead a strong and massive cutting blades, and at the same time required to hit out-chop, cut, dig, for example, the extraction of edible plants or removing small animals from their burrows. It goes without saying that the ax might serve as a weapon in defending or attacking, especially during hunting animals. Interestingly, Chellean minced convenient trapped right hand and at the same time, so that the working part of the tool is not only the sharp end of it, but also lateral longitudinal edge. Already in Chellean time, the person worked mostly with his right hand.
However, the ax was not the only instrument Chellean person. All monuments Chellean time with minced meet and small guns, though rough, but with a completely determine the form of acute, rough punches, guns. The ancient master inevitably received because of the initial abate nodule or pebble a large number of flakes. Each major flake could be used with the cutting tool as a primitive form in the finished even without further processing. Such sharp flakes can be used for the dismemberment of the hunting prey, replacing absent in humans sharp claws and fangs. More important, apparently, was their role as tools for making tools and weapons made of wood, at least in the form of simple and pointy sticks.
For the dissemination of Paleolithic tools and are far from the Mediterranean Sea, the southern regions of Asia. It has long been known to hand-axes Chellean appearance, found in India, especially in the area of Madras; there they are on the island of Ceylon. Chellean ax found now and in the north of Pakistan – Punjab and in Kashmir, in Upper Burma, Malaya, and Java.
In the USSR Soviet researchers in Armenia found Chellean type weapons. The territory of Armenia is a high plateau, almost entirely covered by thick layers of lava Quaternary period, which blocked the more ancient relief of the country. Only a few sections of the Armenian plateau were free from the influence of the volcanic activity of the Quaternary period. At one of these sites and is located up the hill Big Bogutlu or Artin, which is at the foot of the hill Satani-Dar, is now received worldwide fame in archeology.
On the slopes of Satani-Dar, strewn with shards of volcanic glass – obsidian, pieces of stone found, treated person. These are primarily coarse chopping. Their shape and heart-shaped almond-shaped, zigzag blade, handle, or, as is sometimes written, “Heel”, often takes about two-thirds of the guns. Together with the hand axes found discoid coarse chopping tools, massive pointed and primitive “drills”, ie. E. Flakes or pieces of obsidian from the tip.
Close by the type of archaic weapons found on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, especially in Yashtuhe around Sukhumi. Rough flakes and products such as hand axes were also found on the Dniester, about Luke. Thus, the area in which began the development of humankind, covering a number of southern regions of the Soviet Union.
Judging by the spread Chellean guns, people at that time already existed in many places. In Europe, the most numerous traces its known activity as described above, in France. Chellean guns in large numbers are found in Spain. Chellean abundance of finds in Africa confirms that the continent, in particular, the valley of the Upper Nile and the surrounding area is now deserted; it was one of those places where already at that time there was a man.
Extremely valuable as the latest discoveries in North Africa, in Ternifine (Algeria). Here the development of sandstone since the 70-ies of the last century, often found animal bones Quaternary time: large elephant-Atlanticus, including a skull of the elephant bones of hippopotamus, rhinoceros, zebras, giraffes, camels, a large baboon, antelope, as well as saber-toothed tigra-machairodus. Together with these bones Chellean met with similar products made rough stone thick sandstone, limestone, flint and less, including triquetrous in cross section and right processed minced. In 1934 Ternifine under the same conditions, the same layers were found and the remains of ancient people.
Thus, for the first time quite clearly established that the most ancient people, close to the level of its development to Pithecanthropus and yet already had similarities with the more developed man, Sinanthropus, as might be expected, started doing gun is Chellean type used in his work chopped Chellean life forms.