May 23, 2017

The Alexandrian War: Part 1

The Alexandrian war (48-47 BC) was part of the civil war of Julius Caesar against supporters of the Republic.

Murderers of Pompey was waiting for gratitude from coming to Egypt after the battle of Pharsalus Caesar, but the first thing he had to punish them. He went on the Egyptian coast at Alexandria with two legions, which were only 3,200 people, and 800 Celtic and German cavalry. He went to Egypt in order to pay off old debt, because they need money, and to solve the issue of the succession to the throne. Egyptian throne disputed children each other of the late king Ptolemy Avleta 13-year-old Ptolemy Dionysus and 17-year-old Cleopatra. Initially it was decided that they will combine with each other by marriage (although brother and sister), and will lead the country. However, on the advice of ambitious and greedy boy the eunuch Pothinus, Ptolemy, Cleopatra are denied the right to participate in government. She fled to Syria, gathered an army and marched to the Egyptian border. Dionysus, Ptolemy and Pothinus were waiting for it to have its own army Peluso. They killed Pompey, who sought refuge in the East, losing Caesar fight in the Balkans.

Went to Egypt in pursuit of Pompey, Caesar took Alexandria the Palace where the king lived, and demanded that Cleopatra. It was, dissolving the army to prove their peacefulness, their presentation. More than she had hoped the army on its appeal and compassionate person disaster a charming girl. She was right; sacrificing the honor, she gained the favor of Caesar. However, making her his mistress, Caesar did not lose sanity. He decided that his brother would have bequeathed to his father to share the Royal power with his sister. Their cash requirements it can be reduced to the sum of ten million denariuses.

But impressionable, turbulent population of Alexandria, capital of Egypt, was worried: he was irritated by the sight of the lictors and foreign soldiers in the city that exotic commander lived in the Royal Palace, keeps himself as the Kingdom of the Lord, which he took on the judge in the case of succession to the throne, I have decided the dispute on their own, contrary to custom. Alexandrians loved Ptolemaic Greek because it is Greek, the natives – because the spirit of the pharaohs controls them. The eunuch Pothinus and his assistants, whom the restoration of the power Cleopatra has brought inevitable death, his fame spread through the agents of that king’s rights refers only to the form, but in fact the Egyptian throne is given only to Cleopatra, because she was the wife of Caesar. Irritation of the Alexandrians is increasing because the payment of the debt to Caesar the government to coin money in gold and silver utensils of the Palace, the treasures of the temples, they were taken to the mint in front of people.

The excitement soon turned into a mutiny. The Egyptian army under the command of Achilles, he was transferred to the people. It consisted of 2,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry; they were mostly soldiers of the Roman garrison, received the Egyptian service after many years of living in Egypt. In addition, there were mercenaries, experienced soldiers; they both got used to the Egyptians intermarried with them, marrying their daughters; they were among the soldiers and runaway slaves, which in case of defeat, before his death on the cross. The soldiers of Caesar provokes people with his arrogance. Some of them, who walked around the city alone or in small groups, were killed. It was the beginning of the so-called Alexandrian war, which kept Caesar in Egypt’s capital during nine months (October 48 to July 47) is exposed to the greatest danger for himself and his little army was defeated and gave opponents time to collect, restore and renew the fight. Meanwhile, Rome is preparing to welcome the Victor of Caesar, he was compelled to wage war in the streets of Alexandria. Rome believed that he, after his victory at pharsalus was the ruler of the state, and Caesar with difficulty defended his life. He saw the danger of his position, but showed unwavering confidence in the triumph, to instill courage by their example the soldiers and his confidence in himself, to deceive the enemy. Although it was nice to be in the eyes of Cleopatra full glare of his military talents and firmness of the ruler who must obey all.

Caesar was sent to Syria and Asia Minor requirements to the Roman rulers and ruled Rome as soon as possible rulers sent him military aid, sent to Rhodes, Crete and coastal cities, the requirements for shipping vessels, troops, and bread. While waiting for help, he is small but brave, his troops fought against the great mass of the population of Alexandria and the Egyptian army. He held the Palace, which was held for the king, with great art, with boundless energy repelled the attack on the Palace and the adjacent buildings, especially in the theater. He managed to keep under his rule and the island of Pharos, connected with the city’s bulk; so that part of the coast the harbour is left behind. Caesar was as brilliant a military engineer, as the commander was, he turned to the citadel each house of the Palace of Alexandria, called Bruch’s. However, Egyptians in the war-strained all their energies to save the independence of their state. The Lord fought beside the slaves, giving them the content and salaries, work with them in the shops, forged weapons military vehicles working on the construction of trenches and fortifications, the Romans shear its way through the streets. The Egyptians did not guess to bring in the ships that were in harbour and shipyard; Caesar had to burn them. Therefore, it facilitates access to the harbour ships that came too late to help him. Shipyard firefighters, the flames engulfed the neighboring houses Bruch and turned into the ashes of the Alexandrian library. Mutiny, Arsinoe, the younger sister of king Ptolemy Dionysus, and her adviser, the eunuch Ganymede, a man courageous and energetic.

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