June 30, 2017

The Aachen Congress (1818)

The Congress of the Holy Alliance, held in the German city of Aachen with 18 (30) September 9 (21) November 1818. The three main Emperor of the Holy Alliance attended it: Russian Emperor Alexander I and Austrian Emperor Franz I and the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm III. Authorized by Congress were the Russian – graphs Capodistrias and Nesselrode; the Austrian – Metternich; Prussia – Prince Hardenberg and count Bernstorff; the English – the Duke of Wellington and Lord Castle; French Duke Richelieu.

The main goal of the Aachen Congress was to reduce the period of the occupation of French territory by allied troops to determine the attitude of the allied powers to the defeated (after the defeat of Napoleon) of France. However, Congress dealt with other issues. In Aachen has adopted the following acts:

  1. Of the Convention concluded by France separately with every minute of the four of the victorious powers in the war of 1813-1815 (Russia, Austria, Prussia, England) to evacuate the French territory
  2. Note that these four powers were invited, and the Duke of Richelieu expressed consent of France, to join the Union of the great European powers to maintain peace and the sanctity of international treatises
  3. Protocol that determined the order of consideration of claims filed by many of the French subjects of the allied powers
  4. Two of the secret Protocol, adopted without participation of the representative of France. They again renewed the quadruple Alliance 1815 and outlined military measures in the event of the new revolutionary turmoil in France
  5. Protocol, which confirmed the Holiness of prisoners of treatises, and in case of new international Assembly, proclaimed the right of other States, on cases, which will be discussed at these meetings, to take part in the negotiations
  6. The Declaration is addressed to all European courts. She proclaimed the continuity of the bond of peace concluded between the five great European powers (the pentarchic), and pointed out that to join the Union monarchs recognize my main, an indispensable duty to steadily follow the principles of international law
  7. The Protocol amending the resolution of the Congress of Vienna on the rank of diplomatic agents and defines the place of Ministers of resident envoys below and above attorneys.

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