The battle of Agincourt October 25, 1415 marked one of the most important turning points in the history of the hundred year’s war. A heavy defeat it almost cost the Valois dynasty to the French throne. Several followed the battle of Agincourt years he switched to English, and from obedience to them, France was saved only by the exploits of the great national hero Joan of Arc.
In 1415, Henry V, king of England, came with a numerous army near the mouth of the Seine on the Northern coast of France and took possession (September) the city of Purpleroom, breaking tough defenses of his garrison. However, the damage suffered by the English army, as the actions of the enemy, or from contagious diseases has been so great that the king found it necessary to go to Calais, to winter there and await reinforcements from England. The French, gathered under the command of the Dauphin and the constable Charles d’albret army of 50,000 infantry and 8,000 knights (according to others, 15.000 knights and 35 thousand infantry) occupied the right Bank of the river Somme, in the intention to block the path of the British. In the ranks of the French troops, there were several princes of the Royal house and almost all the highest nobility of France.
After unsuccessful attempts to seize the river crossings at Blastula and Pont-Remy, Henry V finally managed to cross the river somewhat higher in Saint-Quentin. His army consisted of only 2.000 equestrians and 12,000 foot, and was fatigued with enhanced transitions and all kinds of shortcomings. The French occupied all the bridges, guarded all the fords, took food out of the way, British troops or destroyed them; the English was very difficult to move forward. In vain, Henry V, feeling the gravity of his situation, offered to opponents to conclude the most advantageous for them the world. The French were hoping the superior forces to destroy her hated enemy, and therefore, ahead of the British on the road to Calais, is located to the battle between the villages Franeker and Agincourt (Azincourt), three miles from the town of Saint-Paul.
Place, selected them for battle approximately Agincourt, was the most unprofitable. Limited to copses, consisting of fresh arable land and viscous, it does not allow any deployment of troops or the free action of cavalry, which, according to the custom of feudal times, was the best part of the French army. Not less erroneous were the orders of the constable d’albret to the fight: the infantry he gave three deep and crowded the line, in front of which stood the troops of the dismounted equestrians. 2 thousand mounted men at arms were placed in front of the two flanks of the first line. With the same insouciance, the French repeated all the mistakes made by them at the battle of Poitiers 1356. Moreover, in located at Azincourt the French army was no order, no subordination. Arrogant princes and barons despised the commandment of the constable, were in charge of the squads at their own discretion, and hurried out of the rear lines in the front, for fear of otherwise being late to defeat the enemy.
Henry V, for his part, passed on 24 October 1415 at the French swampy river Ternoise (or Lablance) and built his army near Agincourt, on the heights of the village of Madonsela. In the center was placed the infantry, forming, in its small size, one shallow line. The knights were the wings, ahead of them stood the arrow, the infallible army of British, armed, besides bows and swords, long and pointed sticks, which they stuck in front of him in the ground to hold the onslaught of enemy cavalry.
The night of October 25, 1415 and the next morning was cold and rainy. The French held them in revelry the challenges of the enemy. The French knights were so confident of victory that he has already agreed about how you will divide among themselves the prisoners feasted all night before the battle. The British in silence, preparing for desperate combat.
At two o’clock in the afternoon Henry V, vainly awaiting the battle of Agincourt the attack of the opponents decided to proceed with it himself, reminding the soldiers about the glory acquired by their ancestors under such difficult circumstances in the battles at Crecy and Poitiers, ordered them to go forward. Flanking detachments of the French knights rushed to meet them, but because of the rain slush and many trees and shrubs are unable to stretch their line to outflank the enemy from the flanks. They often were stuck and were killed by the arrows of the English, part tilted to the first line that came into confusion. British arrows immediately took advantage of this: they took the swords and broke into the enemy line, killed the constable and most of the chiefs.
Due to such a bad start of the battle of Agincourt the first French line was soon back and introduces disorder in the second. Meanwhile other British troops arrived to help the arrows. Fierce battle ensued in which the king Henry V, courageously fighting ahead of teams was repeatedly exposed to the greatest danger. Inept French generals forced the cavalry to fight in the battle of Agincourt on foot, and his soldiers placed very dense rows. The British had only to shoot into the mass of people who crushed and smothered one another. In the end, the second French line was also partly destroyed, partly overturned to the third. The latter, devoid of leaders and are passionate about a common disorder that struck from under the battle of Agincourt in flight.
At this very moment hearing that a strong French squad that toured the British and nearing Madonsela (which was sent to French POWs), forced the king to stop for a while the harassment and I’ll give the command to kill is taken by the British under the Agincourt prisoners. The falsity of this rumour (which was an attempt of the villagers ganged up to Rob the English convoy) revealed only when several thousand French knights and soldiers were cut.
The French lost at the battle of Agincourt to 10 thousand people were killed (including 8000 nobles) and to 14 thousand taken prisoner. Among those who under the battle of Agincourt there were eight princes of the Royal house of Valois and 120 noble feudal lords: the constable d’albret, both Admiral of France (assistant constable), chief of the gunmen, Archbishop Sanski Montague and many others of the aristocracy. The English prisoner at Agincourt was a Prince of Orleans (was found injured under a pile of bodies), counts ASCII, the place Vendome, man, Marshal Boucicaut, and 1,500 knights and squires of noble birth.
The loss of the British in the battle of Agincourt was only 1,600 people dead and wounded. Among the British killed was a cousin of king Edmund, Duke of York and Earl of Suffolk. The victorious army of Henry V of Agincourt has gone to Calais and, after resting there, returned to England. With a joyful Hello to the people of the king, 23 November 1415 came to London.