The great achievement of advanced science in the late XIX century. More findings were the remains of highly organized creatures than Australopithecus. These remains date to the entire Quaternary period, which is divided into two stages: the Pleistocene, which lasted approximately VIII-VII centuries BC. and covering proglacial and the glacial period, and the current stage (Holocene). The discoveries have fully confirmed the views of leading scientists of the XIX century. And the theory of Engels on the origin of man.
The first was found the most ancient of all currently known prehistoric man, Pithecanthropus (literally “ape”). Pithecanthropus Bones were first found because of persistent search, which lasted from 1891 to 1894, The Dutch physician E. Dubois near Trinil, on the island of Java. Going to South Asia, Dubois set out to find the remains of the transition from ape to operate form, since the existence of such a form emerged from the evolutionary theory of Darwin. Discovery Dubois abundantly justified his expectations and hopes. They found skullcap and femur immediately showed great importance Trinil findings, since one was found the most important links in the chain of human development.
In 1936, Modjokerto, also in Java, was found the skull of a child Pithecanthropus. There were animal bones, including those believed to be somewhat older time. In 1937, local residents were taken to the laboratory of Bandung geological Sangria most complete skullcap Pithecanthropus, with the temporal bone, and then in the Sangria were found and other remains of Pithecanthropus, including two more skulls. Total currently known remains of at least seven individuals Pithecanthropus.
As shown by its very title, Pithecanthropus (ape) connects the ancient type of advanced Australopithecus monkeys primitive man more advanced type. About this value Pithecanthropus, most complete evidence of skull finds in Trinil and Sangria. These turtles are combined monkey-specific and purely human traits. The first group includes such features as a peculiar form of the skull, with a pronounced interception in front of the forehead, around the eye sockets, and a massive, wide supraocular roller tracks longitudinal ridge on the crown, low cranial vault. A sloping forehead and large thickness cranial bones. However, at the same time Pithecanthropus was already fully bipedal creature. The volume of the brain (850-950 cu. Cm) was 1.5-2 times higher than that of our contemporary apes. However, the overall proportions and the degree of the individual lobes of Pithecanthropus longer approaching anthropoids than to man.