The emergence of human society
The era of the formation and development of the primitive communal relations is of great importance in the history of humankind. It starts with the separation of man from the animal world. During this era laid the foundation of all further development of material and spiritual culture of human society.
“This” gray antiquity “in all circumstances remain for all future generations of extraordinarily interesting era, because it forms the basis of all the later higher development, because it has as its starting point the selection of man from the animal kingdom, as well as its content – to overcome such difficulties, who will never meet the future people associate ” – wrote about the era of primitive society Friedrich Engels.
The process of formation of the person and of the primitive communal system consists of a series of successive in his work “State and Revolution”, referring to the initial stages of human development, refers to the “flock of monkeys, stick-wielding” the “primitive people” and “the people united in clans” (tribal communities). These definitions are taken by Soviet science to refer to three different cycle through the stages of human evolution and the formation of society.
The first two stages are time allocation of our most ancient ancestors of the animal world. They have become because of this, and the turning point in the history of our planet, revealing a long, hard and difficult, but a great way to labor and social development, which went from weakness to nature to an ever-increasing power of man over it.
To better present the course of events in these early stages of human history, as well as all along the primeval history, it is necessary first of all to bear in mind the natural geographic environment, the events in the history of the world, against which there were changes in the life of our distant ancestors in many respects it is closely related to changes in their environment.
As is known, the history of the Earth is divided into four eras: the Archean, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The last era and continues today. Each of this era in turn divided into a number of periods. Only in the second half of the Archean (“original”) era, which lasted about l1 / 2 billion. Years on the earth arises life, first in the form of simple organisms, then algae, sponges, coelenterates, mollusks, annelids. Sometimes the time of the appearance of life on earth isolated in a particular era – the Proterozoic (the era of “early life”). In the Paleozoic era (era of “ancient life”), which lasted about 325 million. Years, there are fish, insects, amphibians, reptiles, and terrestrial spore-plants. The Mesozoic Era (the era of the “average life”), which lasted about 115 million. Years was the time of giant reptiles. The Cenozoic era (era of “new life”, the reign of mammals) is divided into two major periods: the Tertiary and Quaternary.