There can be no doubt that the labor and progressive. Development society causes a corresponding progressive change in consciousness, in the thinking of primitive man. There idealistic theories that try to prove that the mind of primitive man was supposedly thoroughly irrational and mystical that our ancestors were supposedly entirely false, is fundamentally wrong, totally perverse and fantastic notions of reality.
However, enough to be acquainted with the actual process of development of primitive man and his culture, to make sure of the opposite. It is clear that if the content of the consciousness of our primitive ancestors were not real representations corresponding to objective reality and are true reflection of the laws and phenomena of the real world, but only to some mystic representation and baseless fiction, humanity is not. It would be able to successfully develop further. If the consciousness of primitive man to some degree reflect the objective reality in its present form and true, he could not withstand the forces of nature and would ultimately their victim. With the so-called mystical thinking person would not be able to produce their tools and refine them.
The journey from ignorance to knowledge, from vague, ambiguous and false perceptions of reality to a more accurate and true picture was, of course, is extremely slow and difficult. Nevertheless, precisely because of these positive knowledge, underlying the conscious activity of man, and it is based on, thinking, consistently increased and enriched, the man went all forward and forward.
The development of primitive human mind was consistent growth of his work, his everyday work practice, as the only source of knowledge and perceptions of reliability test of the outside world.
The development of the mind of Neanderthal man with the most clearly reflected in the further improvement of its tools. On a more complex mental activity, Mousterian man compared to his primitive ancestors evidenced by the presence at the end of the Mousterian time artfully made of colorful spots and bands. These are broad bands of red paint inflicted hand Neanderthal man across a small stone tiles, found during excavations in the cave Mousterian settlements La Ferrassie (France).
Neanderthal man still could not draw or sculpt the shape of the beast. However, at the end of the Mousterian period noticeable first attempts to intentionally change the shape of the stone, not only to make him tools. The Mousterian deposits discovered stone slab with skillfully hollowed depressions, so-called “cup-stones.” On the slab of La Ferrassie Cupules located not alone, as a compact group, and in such a way that their placement is found some connection.
Of course, it would be wrong to overestimate overly exaggerate the degree of development of abstract thinking in Neanderthals. Even more sharply, it should be emphasized by the fact that primitive man was not free from false and misconceptions about himself and about the world around him, as only took the first steps from ignorance to knowledge, as every hour, every minute felt their weakness in the struggle with nature and dependent on its elements.