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April 17, 2017

Biography of Alexander the Great, Part 2

After the death of Darius, all the nations of Persia looked at Alexander the Great as their legitimate ruler. Only the north-eastern provinces continued to resist, and Alexander, having taken and passed Hyrcania on the Caspian Sea to Zadrakarty (now Astrabad), went to Bactria, where he assembled his army took the title of king of Bess. The uprising in Arias made, however, Alexander deviate to the south. After suppressing the rebellion and founded a city here, Alexander decided to cut Bess way to the south, and take Arachosia Drangiana that he managed without much difficulty. Unaccustomed to the old soldiers of Alexander the Great luxury, which he surrounded himself here, and the lack of any kind had advantages for the Macedonians in comparison with Asian subjects, caused displeasure in the army of Alexander. In the autumn of 330 BC it was discovered the plot, after which the disclosure of Alexander ordered the killing of the old commander Philip – Parmenion, Philotas whose son was suspected of involvement in the plot. Despite the extreme cold, Alexander moved from Arachosia, where he founded Alexandria, in Bactria, made the transition through the snow-covered mountain passes of the Hindu Kush. Bess without resistance cleared Bactria. Alexander the Great took the then Marakanda (Samarkand) and was moving forward to Kiropol, and he had to overcome a new revolt that engulfed many provinces; at this time, Alexander also made his famous trip to the country of the Scythians. Alexander then gave her a luxurious court in Marakanda and with great pomp celebrated his marriage with Roxane. The Alexander more and more detected features oriental despot. Previously saved his life, Alexander was killed Clete during an argument, and the nephew and pupil of Aristotle and Callisthenes two noble youths were executed for refusing to perform the ritual genuflection before Alexander.

The desire to bring new successes satisfaction dissatisfied innovations army of Alexander the Great made to undertake a campaign to India, which he began at the end of 327 with a 120 strong army. After a series of bloody battles and victories in the spring of 326 Alexander reached the Indus, then won victory and captured the king’s time at the Hydaspes River, on the west bank of which founded the city Bukefalu, and on the east – Nicaea, but then the exhausted troops refused to go forward to the Ganges; acceded to this unfavorable predictions priests, and Alexander started in the autumn of 326, the retreat down the Hydaspes, and the command of the three parts of the fleet was entrusted Nearchus, craters and Hephaestion.

Almost all encountered on the way the tribes obeyed without resistance; only one tribe Mullen had resisted, and in the assault of the fortified city of Alexander was seriously wounded. Alexander went to the Indian Ocean, he has gained several victories on the road, made a very difficult 60-day passage through the desert to the main town Gedrozii – Pure, and then went to Karaman, where he was joined Crater and Niarchos. Niarchos continued on his way along the shore of the Persian Gulf to the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates, and Hephaestion with most of the troops went to Persis (now Fars). Alexander himself through Pasargadae and Persepolis went to Susa, where the abuse of his deputies demanded his intervention and received severe retribution.

The merger of East and West now seemed achieved, and to establish it more firmly, Alexander the Great took to wife a shekel, eldest daughter of Darius; up to 80 people close to him and 100 other Macedonians he also married to Persian. Equal treatment in barbarous Alexander and the Macedonian troops again aroused indignation, repressed personal intervention of Alexander. Conquered and destroyed almost savage tribe kosseev, Alexander returned to Babylon, where zealously patronized trade laying of roads, harbors and cities of the device. Especially took his project to colonize the east coast of the Persian Gulf and Arabia rounded, establish direct trade relations by sea between Egypt and the Euphrates region. It was already appointed day for the departure of the fleet, but Alexander, after this sends Niarchos headed the fleet farewell feast, a fever, gradually taking more dangerous character; In June 323, Alexander the Great died on 32 year of life. Embalmed corpse of Alexander two years later was transferred to Egypt by Ptolemy, and is buried in Memphis and then moved to Alexandria, in especially arranged for the temple. Now after the death of Alexander, did not leave a successor began discord between his generals, and Alexander the Great’s empire broke up. His conquests were, however, the consequence of that is cut off before the Greek cultural influence of Asia Minor merged with the Greek world, perceiving many of the features of Hellenic civilization. Subsequent historical period so called era of Hellenism.

From the very numerous art images of Alexander reached us very few. The most true to the appearance of Alexander is considered to found in 1779 near Tivoli bust with the inscription, which is in the Louvre. Marble statue of Alexander in his youth kept in the Munich Glyptotek, and similar to her marble head of the British Museum; a bronze statue of Alexander in full vestments found in Herculaneum. The name Alexander binds famous marble bust of Florence, the so-called “Dying Alexander” (actually a giant image) and most of the surviving mosaics of antiquity. From dedicated Alexander Arts, new works, the most famous: the frescoes of Sodom in the Villa Farnesina in Rome, “The Wedding of Alexander and Roxane,” Thorvaldsen relief depicting the entry of Alexander into Babylon, and “The Death of Alexander” Pilots in the Berlin National Gallery.

Life of Alexander the Great, made his collaborators Kallisfenom, Anaximenes, Cleitarchus et al., And based on these not entirely reliable sources the story of Diodorus and Trogus Pompeius, as well as biographies of Plutarch and Arrian give a more or less reliable information about military operations of Alexander the Great. For judgments about his ideas and goals, political organizations and projects, we do not have any materials. Personality Alexander in ancient times, but especially in the medieval poets of the East and West became a favorite subject of legendary stories. Literature about Alexander the Great is very extensive.

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