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April 13, 2017

Biography of Alexander the Great, Part 1

Alexander the Great – the greatest conqueror of all time, the son of King Philip II and Olympic Games, the daughter of the king of Epirus Neoptolemus, was born in 356 BC and died in 323. Alexander’s tutor with 13 years of age was Aristotle, who awakened in his pupil the idea of the greatness, the power and intellectual rigor that ennobled manifestations passionate nature of Alexander, and taught it to exercise the power sparingly and consciously. Alexander treated his teacher with the greatest respect, it is often said that he owes his life to his father, and Aristotle – that lives with dignity. The ideal of Alexander of Macedon was a hero of the Trojan War, Achilles. Full of energy and the desire to act, often with Alexander defeated his father complained that he did not leave any work for him. In gymnastics, and other competitions Alexander had no equal; while still a boy, he tamed a wild horse Bucefala later serve him battle horse. Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) was won, thanks to the personal bravery of Alexander.

Philip II was proud of his son and saw him as a performer his boldest assumptions and expectations. Subsequently, however, the removal of Philip the mother of Alexander, Cleopatra and marriage to a range of humiliations experienced by Alexander, broke the good relations between father and son; rumor attributed to Alexander, even participated in the murder of Philip. With the accession of Alexander to the throne (in the autumn of 336 BC) he had to endure the struggle with the conspiracy of Attalus, the uncle of Cleopatra, who wanted to build on the throne last son, and the Greeks are ready to revolt against the Macedonian hegemony. Attal, Cleopatra and her son were killed, and Alexander against the Greeks hastily marched into Thessaly, he passed Thermopylae, and came to Thebes. The Athenians asked for peace, and to grant them all the Greeks of Alexander. Messengers Greek cities gathered at Corinth, where Alexander, among others, met with Diogenes and where the overall war was resolved against Persia, Alexander the Great and was recognized as the supreme leader of all the Hellenes; refused to stick to the Union only Spartans. By taking then a campaign against the barbarians of the north, in the spring of 335 Alexander made the transition through the Balkans and through tribally occupied land, reached the northern bank of the Danube, populated by geth, who took extensive production, forcing them to sue for peace, and then just as well made trip to the south-west, in Illyria. Rumors of the death of Alexander in this campaign provoked a new uprising in Greece, namely Athens and Thebes; Thebes was razed to the ground, all the people (up to 30 thousand. Pers.) Were sold into slavery, only the house and the descendants of Pindar were spared. The rest of the Greek states were pardoned. Ruler of the state in most of Macedonia, Antipater was appointed with a 13-thousand army.

Then proceeded to march to Persia, Alexander the Great in the early spring of 334, he appeared to Asia, sending 35000th army of 160 ships, and the first victory over the 40000th Persian army won at the river Granicus; In this battle, Alexander was almost killed, and escaped only thanks to his friend Klitou. To protect themselves from floating in the Aegean Sea Persian fleet, Alexander set out to take a country inhabited by Greeks. Most of the cities obeyed him without resistance. Miletus was taken by storm, Kariya also subdued him long resisted Halicarnassus was burned by the Persian general Memnon, the intention is to go with his fleet to the Greek islands and then to Macedonia prevented the death. Alexander the Great went to Phrygia, and its main town of Gordes, where he remained for the winter; here he cut the famous “Gordian knot” tied Gorda at the drawbar chariots dedicated to Zeus; then conquered Paphlagonia, Alexander was moving forward to Cappadocia and reached its capital Tarsus. Assembled between the Persian king Darius III 60000th army of Alexander defeated in battle in the Valley of Pinara River, to the southeast of the town of Issa (November 333). Darius fled, leaving Alexander all his camp, and enormous booty; mother, wife and children of Darius were captured.

Heading further south to the coast and take a cut of the Persians from the sea, Alexander came to Phoenicia, where, after a 7-month siege of Tyre took by storm (August 332), in early September, went through Palestine, Jerusalem, where he opened the gate to Egypt, where in the capture, after a 2-month siege, the border fortress Alexander was wounded in Gaza. Satrap Mazak surrendered without resistance Egypt after Alexander came to the city Peluso. Population, dissatisfied Persian rule, never to resist, in part because Alexander the Great in Egypt, everywhere treated with respect for the religion of the people and sacrificed local deities. From Memphis, Alexander walked down the Nile and near the western branch of the Nile, near the island of Pharos, laid the foundation of his best monument – the city of Alexandria

Darius III of, meanwhile, gathered a new army in Assyria, and Alexander, Darius proudly rejecting the proposal on the conclusion of the world, went to Assyria, going Euphrates and Tigris, and at Gaugamela near Arbela, won a decisive victory (autumn 331), who caused a fatal blow to the Persian state. Babylon surrendered, Susa was taken almost without resistance. In December 331, Alexander went to Persepolis and Pasargadae, where his army again got rich booty; as an atoning sacrifice for the sin of the Persians to the Greeks, Alexander burned the ancient capital. Upon learning of the approach of Alexander the Great to the Medes, Darius fled, and they fled was captured Bactrian satrap Bess strove to seize the throne, and in July, killed 330. Alexander gave Darius a solemn funeral in Persepolis.

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